What is Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus widely known simply as diabetes is a chronic disorder of glucose metabolism which affects millions of people all over the world. According to the World Health Organization at least 171 millions of people worldwide have diabetes, while the amount of people suffering from diabetes is expected to be more than double by 2030. Although diabetes is often considered a disease of developed countries death related to diabetes is higher in the developing countries. According to the WHO 5% (3,2 million) people have died from complications associated with diabetes in year 2000.

Diabetes occurs when pancreas, a gland organ among other also responsible for producing insulin, does not produce enough insulin or the body can not use the produced insulin effectively. Such condition can lead to serious complications causing cardiovascular diseases or damaging kidneys, eyes (diabetes is the leading cause of blindness), skin, feet (amputation), nerves and brain, and in worst case even result death.

There are two basic forms of diabetes.

  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus or insulin-dependent diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus or noninsulin-dependent diabetes

People with Type 1 diabetes produce insufficient amounts or no insulin, while Type 2 diabetes which is most common is characterized by disability of using the produced insulin effectively because of insulin resistance or reduced insulin sensitivity. There is also a third type of diabetes - gestational diabetes which resembles Type 2 diabetes and occurs in some pregnant women but it usually disappears after pregnancy.

Diabetes can affect anyone although majority of people with diabetes are adult after age of 40. At the moment there is no cure for diabetes and for that reason people with diabetes will have it for lifetime. However, both types of diabetes can be managed with regular insulin injections and anti-diabetic drugs but to live normally and fully with diabetes is also very important healthy diet and regular exercise.